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4-H WOODWORKING

GOING FOR THE GOLD QUESTIONS

BASIC

1. Q. What should you think of first before using woodworking tools?

A: Safety

(Member's Manual Lv. I, pg. 5, LHC: "It is important that thoughts of safety precede any work.")

2. Q. What special kind of paper is used to transfer a pattern onto the wood when a curved shape is needed?

A: Carbon paper

(Member's Manual Lv. I, pg. 8, LHC: "Usually a curving shape is transferred by tracing the pattern onto the wood using carbon paper.)

3. Q. What can you use to securely hold a pattern and carbon paper onto wood when transferring a plan?

A: Push pins, thumb tacks or masking tape (any one of the three)

(Member's Manual Lv. I, pg. 9, LHC: "Hold the pattern in place with pins or tacks.")

4. Q. In the plans for a woodworking project, which lines extend down from the object to the dimension lines?

A: Extension lines

(Member's Manual Lv. I, pg. 9, LHC: "Extension lines extend from important corners of from the centre of holes, to slightly beyond the dimension lines.")

5. Q. There is a special term given to the area where the saw removes wood fibres as it cuts. What is this called?

A: Kerf

(Member's Manual Lv. I, pg. 11, LHC: "It is important that the saw cut (kerf) is on the waste side of the line.")

6. Q. What type of saw is used when cutting along the grain of wood?

A: A rip saw

(Member's Manual Lv. I, pg. 13, LHC: "A rip saw has half as many teeth, and is used when cutting along the grain of the wood.")

7. Q. With hardwoods it is difficult to start and drive a nail. What can we do to get around this difficulty?

A: Drill a pilot hole

(Member's Manual Lv. I, pg. 19, LHC: "...drill a pilot or starter hole through the two pieces, to the approx. length of the nail.

8. Q. What is the basic "rule of thumb" for selecting the length of nail when nailing a thinner board to a thicker board?

A: The nail should be twice the thickness of the thin board

(Member's Manual Lv. I, pg. 20, RHC: "...the nails should be twice the thickness of the thin board.")

9. Q. A special dip of zinc is applied to nails so they won't rust. What is this process called?

A: Galvanizing

(Member's Manual Lv. I. pg.20, LHC: "Galvanizing, a hot dip of zinc, prevents nails from rusting in damp situations.")

10. Q. When using glue in woodworking what two things actually bond?

A: The glue and the shallow layers of wood that have absorbed the glue.

(Member's Manual Lv. I, pg. 27, RHC: "As it dries, a bond is created between itself <glue> and the shallow layers of wood that absorbed it.")

11. Q. What is the most common tool for holding pieces of wood together while glue is drying?

A: A clamp

(Member's Manual Lv. I, pg. 28, LHC: "Use clamps.")

12. Q. What term refers to the size of the small pieces of stone or glass that are glued onto paper or cloth to make sandpaper?

A: Grit

(Member's Manual Lv. I, pg. 29, LHC: "Sandpaper is made up of small pieces of stone or glass, called grit, glued onto a support of paper or cloth.")

13. Q. When using sandpaper do you work along the length or across the grain?

A: Along the length of the grain

(Member's Manual Lv. I, pg. 29, RHC: "When sanding, always work up and down the length of the grain.")

14. Q. What are the two main reasons why we apply finish to wood?

A: Protection and beauty (or additional decoration)

(Member's Manual Lv. I, pg. 31, LHC: "Protection is the main reason why we finish wood. ... Wood is also finished for beauty.")

15. Q. All wood finishes can be broken down into two main types, depending on how they interact with the wood. What are these two types?

A: Penetrating finishes or surface layer finishes

(Member's Manual Lv. I, pg. 31, LHC: "...finishes are of two basic types. They either penetrate into the wood, or they sit on top of it.")

16. Q. Only a certain kind of finish can be used for wooden articles which will be used for serving food or used by children. What kind of finish is that?

A: A non-toxic finish

(Member's Manual Lv. I, pg. 32, RHC: "For any article used to prepare or serve food, or to be used by young children, use a non-toxic edible oil...")

17. Q. Although it doesn't indicate its actual size, lumber is known by the size it was when first cut. What term is given to this size?

A: The nominal size

(Member's Manual Lv. II, pg. 6, LHC: "The size describes the dimensions of the lumber when it was first cut. These are known as its nominal measurements.")

18. Q. Which aspect of lumber's description is affected by the number of knots and defects?

A: The grade of the lumber

(Member's Manual Lv. II, pg. 6, RHC: "... a high-grade board must have more knot-free and defect-free surface than a low-grade board.")

19. Q. What is the name of the main cell found in softwoods?

A: Tracheids

(Member's Manual Lv. II, pg. 9, LHC: "The main cells of all softwoods are tracheids.")

20. Q. What name is given to the grain on the board's broadest surface?

A: Face grain

(Member's Manual Lv. II, pg. 13, LHC: "The face grain is on the face of the board, its broadest surface.")

21. Q. Which is denser and stronger - springwood or summerwood?

A: Summerwood

(Member's Manual Lv. II, pg. 13, RHC: "Summerwood growth is slower, denser, stronger and usually darker.")

22. Q. What term is used to describe the amount of lean there is on the teeth of a saw?

A: The set

(Member's Manual Lv. II, pg. 14, LHC: "...the teeth are bent alternately, right and left. The amount which these lean out is called the set.")

23. Q. Which direction should the teeth on a coping saw point?

A: Down, towards the handle

(Member's Manual Lv. I, pg. 15, RHC: "Make sure the blade's teeth are pointing downwards...")

24. Q. When a nail is too long the extra length can be hammered at a right angle to the way it was driven, until this sits flat on the face of the second board. What is this procedure called?

A: Clinching a nail

(Member's Manual Lv. II, pg. 17, RHC: "Clinching a nail means hammering the extra length over at a right angle to the way it came through the boards.")

25. Q. Once a board is properly dried what causes it to lose or gain moisture?

A: The relative humidity of the surrounding air

(Member's Manual Lv. II, pg. 19, RHC: "Even after the initial drying, the moisture content of the board continues to change. It increases or decreases, according to the relative humidity of the surrounding air.")

26. Q. When laying up boards to glue up wider sections, it is done so that the annual rings of the end grain go in opposite directions. Why is this done?

A: To reduce warping and cupping

(Member's Manual Lv. II, pg. 22, RHC: "Warping and cupping will be reduced if the boards are placed so that annual rings on the end grain go in opposite directions, i.e. one curving up, the next curving down.")

27. Q. Name the two basic types of action found in electric sanders?

A: Straight and orbital

(Member's Manual Lv. II, pg. 29, LHC: "There are two basic types of electric sanders: straight and orbital.")

SNAPPERS

1. Q. True or False. Sawing is a job best done at waist level.

A: False

(Member's Manual Lv. I, pg. 6, RHC: "Sawing is best done below the waist.")

2. Q. True or False. When transferring a pattern onto wood, carbon paper must be placed ink side down.

A: True

(Member's Manual Lv. I, pg. 9, LHC: "Put the carbon paper on the wood, ink side down.")

3. Q. True or False. In a drawing for a woodworking project, it is the dimension lines that outline the object.

A: False

(Member's Manual Lv. I, pg. 9, LHC: "Object lines outline the object...")

4. Q. True or False. The thickest lines seen in a drawing for a woodworking project are the object lines.

A: True

(Member's Manual Lv. I, pg. 9, LHC: "Object lines outline the object and are the thickest.")

5. Q. True or False. The main handsaw used to cut across the grain, such as in cutting pieces to length, is a crosscut saw.

A: True

(Member's Manual Lv. I, pg. 13, LHC: "A crosscut saw .....is used to cut across the grain.")

6. Q. True or False. When a nail is tending to split the wood, it helps to slightly flatten the nail's point.

A: True

(Member's Manual Lv. I, pg. 21, LHC: "There are ways to avoid splitting wood when you are nailing. .... Flatten the nail's point.")

7. Q. True or False. The Phillips screw head has a square recessed shape on it.

A: False

(Member's Manual Lv. I, pg. 24, RHC: "The Phillips has a deep "cross" pattern.")

8. Q. True or False. The finer a sandpaper's grit is the higher the number.

A: True

(Member's Manual Lv. I, pg. 29, LHC: "On the back of the sheet you will see a number. This refers to the grit size - the lower the number, the larger the grit.")

9. Q. True or False. The primary use of softwoods is in finish construction and cabinetry.

A: False

(Member's Manual Lv. II, pg. 6, RHC: "Softwoods are the choice for rough construction, while hardwoods are reserved for finish constructions and cabinetry.")

10. Q. True or False. Oak, ash, and hickory are all ring porous woods.

A: True

(Member's Manual Lv. II, pg. 9, RHC: "Several species such as oaks <Quercus>, ash <Fraxinus>, and hickory <Carya> are ring porous.")

11. Q. True or False. It is the curve of edge grain that helps you picture how the board was cut from the log.

A: False

(Member's Manual Lv. II, pg. 13, LHC: "The curve of the end grain can help you picture exactly how the board was cut from the log.")

12. Q. True or False. Mitre boxes are used to cut accurate angles, generally for 45 or 90 degree cuts.

A: True

(Member's Manual Lv. II, pg. 15, LHC: "A mitre box is used when we wish to cut accurate angles. ... The typical angles cut are 45 or 90 degrees.")

13. Q. True or False. Lumber is planed to produce a good, smooth board for fine work.

A: True

(Member's Manual Lv. II, pg. 19, RHC: "During planing a small amount of the board's surface is shaved off to produce a smooth, dressed finish for fine work")

14. Q. True or False. When gluing up wood it doesn't matter how the grains are aligned because glue and fasteners like dowels are strong enough to keep things in place.

A: False

(Member's Manual Lv. II, pg. 19, RHC: "Woodworkers must consider the changing nature of the wood, and design with it in mind. If they do not, warping or splitting can occur. This can happen when one piece of "moving" wood is fixed securely to a piece that isn't shifting in the same direction.")

15. Q. True or False. Most of the shrinkage on a board occurs radially.

A: False

(Member's Manual Lv. II, pg. 20, LHC: "Tangentially, the wood shrinks two and a half times more than radially.")

ASSIGNED

1. Q. Lumber is described by:

a) size

b) species

c) grade

d) all of the above

A: d) all of the above

(Member's Manual Lv. I, pg. 1: "You will find out how lumber is described - by category, size, species and grade.")

2. Q. One type of drawing you'll find in woodworking plans shows the object just as it looks in a photograph. This type is:

a) isometric

b) perspective

c) orthographic

d) photographic

A: b) perspective

(Member's Manual Lv. I, pg. 9, LHC: ""In a perspective drawing the object looks just like it would in a photograph.")

3. Q. Which lines in a drawing give the actual measurements for length, thickness and width, plus the location and size of any holes?

a) object lines

b) extension lines

c) dimension lines

d) border lines

A: c) dimension lines

(Member's Manual Lv. I, pg. 9, LHC & RHC: "Dimension lines are narrower, and have arrows to show where the measurements start and stop. These measurements give the thickness, width and length of pieces, and size and position of holes.")

4. Q. The best tool for checking to see if lines drawn on a board, or boards positioned for joining are at right angles is a:

a) square

b) ruler

c) piece of plywood

d) tape measure

A: a) square

(Member's Manual Lv. I, pg. 12, LHC: "The main function of squares, however, is to mark or check right angles.")

5. Q. Being successful at hammering depends primarily on:

a) the work surface

b) the hammer

c) the wood

d) the way you grip and swing the hammer

A: d) the way you grip and swing the hammer

(Member's Manual Lv. I, pg. 17, RHC: "Being good at hammering depends on two things: the grip and the swing.")

6. Q. A short finishing nail is called a:

a) roofing nail

b) brad

c) common nail

d) tack

A: b) brad

(Member's Manual Lv. I, pg. 20, LHC: "Brads are short finishing nails.")

7. Q. Which of the following is not used to describe types of screws:

a) the gauge of the shank

b) the pattern of driver required

c) the shape of the head in cross-section

d) the pitch of the thread

A: d) the gauge of the thread

(Member's Manual Lv. I, pg. 24, LHC: "A screw's head is described by the pattern the screwdriver fits into, or by the head's shape in cross-section (looking at it sideways)."; pg. 25, LHC: "The gauge diameter is the size of the wider shank part of the screw.")

8. Q. Which method of sawing produces the greatest number of stable boards:

a) flat sawing

b) quarter sawing

c) tangential sawing

d) through and through sawing

A: b) quarter sawing

(Member's Manual Lv. II, pg. 7, LHC: "Wood cut this way <quarter sawn> is least likely to warp.")

9. Q. Which of the following drawings has three different projections?

a) isometric

b) perspective

c) orthographic

d) none of the above

A: c) orthographic

(Member's Manual Lv. II, pg. 10, LHC: "Views are often visually rotated into what is known as three view projections. These are called orthographic drawings.")

10. Q. A bench hook is used to:

a) clamp a piece of wood tightly to the bench

b) hold a small piece of wood when cutting

c) hold small fasteners like nails

d) help lift heavy pieces of wood off the floor

A: b) hold a small piece of wood when cutting

(Member's Manual Lv. II, pg. 15, RHC: "This handy little tool <bench hook> can help to hold small pieces for cutting.")

11. Q. Toe-nailing is:

a) placing nails so they form a curving line, like your toes

b) putting five nails in

c) hammering nails in at 45 degree angles to join two boards in a "T" joint

d) hitting your boot by mistake with a nail

A: c) hammering nails in at 45 degree angles to join two boards in a "T" joint

(Member's Manual Lv. II, pg. 18, LHC: "This <toe-nailing> is used in construction carpentry when two boards make a "T" joint")

12. Q. When a piece of lumber is warped along both the width and length of a board, the defect is called:

a) a cup

b) a bow

c) a crook

d) a wind

A: d) a wind

(Member's Manual Lv. II, pg. 19, LHC: "Some <defects> include a cup across the width of the board, bow or twist along its length, and winds in both directions")

13. Q. Which of the following glues is best for outdoor use?

a) resorcinol resin

b) white glue

c) yellow carpenter's

d) b) and c)

A: a) resorcinol resin

(Member's Manual Lv. II, pg. 21, RHC: "It <resorcinol resin glue> is waterproof, dark red in colour...")

14. Q. Which of the following woods is best for use with food?

a) birch

b) beech

c) oak

d) walnut

A: b) beech

(Member's Manual Lv. II, pg. 24, LHC: "Being fine-grained it is clean and hygienic. Beech is used for breadboards, rolling pins, spoons and kitchen furniture.")

15. Q. Which is the simplest, most basic joint?

a) a lap

b) a rabbet

c) a butt

d) a splined

A: c) a butt

(Member's Manual Lv. II, pg. 26, RHC: "The butt joint is the most basic joint.)

16. Q. Which of the following combinations of wood and use haven't traditionally been used?

a) beech for fine veneer

b) white oak for liquor barrels

c) ash for bats and shovel handles

d) black walnut for gunstocks

A: a) beech for fine veneer

(Member's Manual Lv. II< LHC: "It <ash> is widely used for bats, oars, handles for shovels and forks etc. ... Beech is used for breadboards, rolling pins, spoons and kitchen furniture. ... white oak is commonly used for barrels for liquor... Because it can help take up the recoil of a shot better than any other wood, it <black walnut> has long been used for gunstocks."

WHO/WHAT AM I?

1. Q. What am I?

For 20 points. I am the standard board for construction throughout North America.

For 15 points. In actual measurement I'm 31/2" wide and 11/2" thick.

For 10 points. In metric measures, my actual size is 88.9mm by 38mm.

For 5 points. I' m sized to fit other building materials like insulation.

A: a 2" by 4"

(Member's Manual Lv. I, pg. 10, RHC: "Look at the actual measurements for the 2 x 4" <50 x 100mm>, the standard board for construction throughout North America. <picture shows actual measures 31/2 x 11/2" and 88.9 x 38mm.> ... materials now sized to fit the current standard, i.e. insulation, drywall sheets, panelling etc.")

2. Q. What am I?

For 20 points. My cells are specialized into different types.

For 15 points. One type of cell are vessels to carry fluids.

For 10 points. Another kind of cells called fibres provide my structural strength.

For 5 points. When my vessels are cut across, their hollow centres are seen as pores.

A: a hardwood

(Member's Manual Lv. II, pg. 9, RHC: "The cells in hardwoods are more specialized. The vessel is one such cell. These cells carry only fluids. ....A second type of cell, fibres, provide the structural strength of hardwood. ...Because the vessels are hollow, they appear as pores when the trunks of hardwoods are cut across.")

TEAM QUESTIONS

1. Q. For glue to work well, the wooden pieces themselves must be properly prepared in three respects. These are:

A: a) the wood must be at the proper moisture content

b) pieces must fit snugly together

c) the surfaces to be glued must be really clean - free from dust, sweat, or grease

(Member's Manual Lv. I, pg. 27, RHC: "Wood must be at the proper moisture content <6 to 8% for interior use and 12 to 15% for exterior use>." pg. 28, LHC: "Pieces must fit snugly, whether planed edges or cut members of a joint. Surfaces to be glued must be really clean - absolutely free of dust, sweat or grease.")

2. Q. There are many different qualities for which we decide to use one species of wood over another for particular jobs. Name four:

A: strength, stability, workability, hardness, finish or beauty, longevity, ability to bend, tight-grained and hygienic

(Member's Manual Lv. II, pg. 23, LHC: "When you try to decide which wood is right for the job, look at many different factors: strength, stability, workability, hardness, finish, longevity. ...some woods bend readily ...Some have a tight grain making them hygienic.")

Copyright 1994 Ecological Farmers Association of Ontario. Reprinted with permission. All rights reserved.


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