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ANNEX 1: PRINCIPLES OF ORGANIC PRODUCTION
A. Plants and plant products
1. The principles set out in this Annex should have been applied on the parcels, form or farm units during a conversion period of at least two years before sowing, or in the case of perennial crops other than grassland, at least three (3) years before the first harvest of products as referred to in paragraph 1 l(a) of these guidelines. The competent authority, or where delegated, the official or officially recognized certification body or authority may decide in certain cases (such as idle use for two years or more) to extend or reduce that period in the light of previous parcel use but the period must equal or exceed 12 months, unless in individual cases the inspection body has adequate justification to reduce further this period.
2. Whatever the length of the conversion period it may only begin once a production unit has been placed under an inspection system as required by 6.2 and once the unit has started the implementation of the production rules referred to in Section 4 of these Guidelines.
3. In cases where a whole farm is not converted at one time, it may be done progressively whereby these guidelines are applied from the start of conversion on the relevant fields. Conversion from conventional to organic production should be effected using permitted techniques as defined in these guidelines. In cases where a whole farm is not converted at the same time, the holding must be split into units as referred to in Annex 3, part A, paragraphs 3 and 11.
4. Areas in conversion as well as areas converted to organic production must not be alternated (switched back and forth) between organic and conventional production methods.
5. In cases where a whole farm is not converted at the same time, the holding must be split into units as referred to in Annex 3, part A, paragraphs 3 and 11.
6.5. The fertility and biological activity of the soil should be maintained or increased, where appropriate, by:
Substances, as specified in Annex 2, Table 1 may be applied only to the extent that adequate nutrition of the crop or soil conditioning are not possible by the methods set out in 6 5 (a) and above or, in the case of manures, they are not available from organic farming
(c) for compost activation, appropriate micro-organisms or plant-based preparations may be used;
(d) biodynamic preparations from stone meal, farmyard manure or plants may also be used for the purpose covered by paragraph 6 5.
7.6. Pests, diseases and weeds should be controlled by any one, or a combination, of the following measures:
8.7.Only in cases of imminent or serious threat to the crop and where the measures identified in 6. (above) are, or would not be effective, recourse may be had to products referred to in Annex 2.
9.8. Seeds and vegetative reproductive material should be from plants grown in accordance with the provisions of Section 4.1 of these guidelines for at least one generation or, in the case of perennial crops, two growing seasons. Where an operator can demonstrate to the official or officially recognized certification body or authority that material satisfying the above requirements is not available, the certification body or authority may support:
The compenent authority may establish criteria to limit the application of the derogation in 8 above
10. 9. The collection of edible plants and parts thereof, growing naturally in natural areas, forests and agricultural areas, is considered an organic production method provided that:
C.B. Handling, Storage Transportation, Processing and Packaging
1. The integrity of the organic product must be maintained throughout the processing phase. This is achieved by the use of techniques appropriate to the specifics of the ingredients with careful processing methods limiting refining and the use of additives and processing aids. Ionising radiation should not be used on organic products for the purpose of pest control, food preservation, elimination of pathogens or sanitation.
2.1. For pest management and control the following measures, in order of preference, should be used:
3. Pests should be avoided by good manufacturing practice. Pest control measures within storage areas or transport containers may include physical barriers or other treatments such as sound, ultra-sound, light, ultra-violet light, traps (pheromone traps and static bait traps) controlled temperature, controlled atmosphere, (carbon dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen) and diatomaceous earth. listed in Annex 2, Table 4.
4. 11.(6.) Use of pesticides not listed in Annex 2 for post harvest or quarantine purposes should not be permitted on products prepared in accordance with these guidelines and would cause organically produced foods to lose their organic status. Irradiation is not permitted as a pest control measure under the organic system.
2. Ionizing radiation should not be used on organic products for the purpose of pest control or sanitation.
Processing and manufacturing
3. The integrity of the organic product must be maintained throughout the processing phase. This is achieved by the use of techniques appropriate to the specifics of the ingredients with careful processing methods limiting refining and the use of additive and processing aids.
4. The processing and manufacturing of agricultural products making claims of "organic", "contains organic ingredients", or claims of similar meaning, should abide by the following guidelines for content and methodology:
(b) Processing methodology:
5. Processing methods should be mechanical, physical or biological (such as fermentation and smoking) and avoid minimise the use of non-agricultural ingredients and incidental additives as listed in Annex 2, Tables 3 & 4.
6. When choosing packaging materials for organic agriculture products the following guidelines should be adhered to:
Storage and transport
2.7. Product integrity should be maintained during any storage and transportation and handling by use of the following precautions:
8 (1) Where only part of the unit is certified, other product not covered by these guidelines should be stored and handled separately and both types of products should be clearly identified.
9 (2) Bulk stores for organic product should be separate from conventional product stores and clearly labelled to that effect.
10.(3) Storage areas and transport containers for organic product should be cleaned using methods and materials permitted in organic production. Measures should be taken to prevent possible contamination from any pesticide or other treatment not listed in Annex 2 before using a storage area or container that is not dedicated solely to organic products.
9.(4) Permitted specific storage conditions may include substances listed in Annex 2, Table 4.
10.(5) Pests should be avoided by good manufacturing practice. Pest control measures within the storage areas or transport containers may include physical barriers or other treatments listed in Annex 2, Table 4.
11.(6). Use of pesticides not listed in Annex 2 for post harvest or quarantine purposes should not be permitted on products prepared in accordance with these guidelines and would cause organically produced foods to lose their organic status. Irridation is not permitted as a pest control measure under the organic system.
12.(7) All material used for packaging must conform to food grade packaging materials as established by national regulations and should minimise the migration of substances not permitted under these guidelines.
13 (8). Any contamination of packaging material from substances that could comprise the organic product should be excluded.
Codex Alimentarius Working Group, May 27th, 1998. (Draft copy)
Text that appears in bold and underlined letters indicates new text relative to the last document of the "Codex Alimentarius Working Group".
Text that appears in red italics letters indicates eliminated text.
Text that appears in green will be discussed next year.
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